The Canada Pension Plan and the Quebec Pension Plan work in tandem to ensure that all contributing Canadians are protected.
Together, they ensure a measure of protection for a contributor and his or her family against the loss of income due to retirement, disability or death.
The CPP is a contributory, earnings-related social insurance program. It is for all Canadians who work or have worked in any Canadian province or territory with the exception of Quebec.
There are three kinds of CPP plan benefits:
- Retirement benefits. You can apply for and receive a full CPP retirement pension at age 65. If you want, you can receive it as early as age 60 with a reduction or as late as age 70 with an increase.
- Disability benefits. These include benefits for disabled contributors and their dependent children.
- Death and survivors benefits. These include a death benefit, survivor’s pension and the children’s benefit.
The CPP provides for Pension sharing for married or common-law couples as well as for Credit splitting for divorced or separated couples. You may also be eligible for the CPP if you have lived or worked outside Canada in a country with which Canada has a social security agreement. For more information, see Lived or Living Outside Canada — Pensions and Benefits.
The QPP is a compulsory public insurance plan. Its purpose is to provide persons who work in Quebec (or have worked in Quebec) and their families with basic financial protection in the event of retirement, death or disability.
Similar to the CPP, the QPP offers three kinds of benefits.
- Retirement benefits. You can apply for and receive a QPP pension at age 60, but the amount will be lower than if you wait until you are 65. You may also qualify for a retirement pension supplement.
- Disability benefits. These are designed for people who have contributed to the plan, have a severe or permanent disability and are under the age of 65.
- Death and survivors benefits. These include a death benefit, a surviving spouse’s pension and an orphan’s pension.
Quebeckers who have worked abroad may qualify for the QPP. They must have worked in a country that signed a social security agreement with Quebec. For more information, see International Social Security Agreements.